By Kazuko Hirose Kawaguchi
The skill to form one's personal destiny-to make judgements at the foundation of one's personal beliefs and goals-is a uniquely human attribute. it really is shared by way of the teams that people fonn-peoples, countries, and different communities--each sure via a standard future. The very lifestyles of alternative contributors and teams that experience this attribute nearly promises that there'll be conflicts between them. And but it's also human to wish to discover universal floor with others. whilst participants or teams emphasize their variations, the result's clash; after they locate universal floor, cooperation turns into attainable. even if, even if it seems that cooperative efforts have resolved the resources of clash, now not all clash will disappear. clash is a normal a part of all human interplay. either clash and cooperation exist concurrently. All social phenomena can eventually be diminished to the query of the way those human features are reconciled and allowed to coexist at the related plane.
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Additional resources for A Social Theory of International Law: International Relations as a Complex System
3-2) ....................... (3) Mathematical expression is possible not only in the case of two actors, but for interaction relations in general; being sets of action functions of two or more actors, such relations can be expressed by multiple simultaneous equations. When an interaction process fulfills the following two conditions, it is defined as an equilibrium system: [I] it has a definite boundary;  a definite form of interaction can be extracted from it. Condition  consists of three prerequisites, which I discuss below.
Direct sum partition according to one of the set's aspects gives one variable. Each cell obtained by this partition represents one value of this variable. All the possible values of this variable are called the domain, while one part of the possible values is called a region. A variable can be either continuous or discrete, and either ordering or disordering. When considering a variable, one must first of all inquire into its nature. This is called deciding the topological structure of the variable space.
See Giddens, The Constitution of Society, pp. 25-28. The Basic Concepts of Systems Theory 33 the system. Although the variables x and y might have different values according to the situation at any given moment, the ways in which they correspond (f and g, or the structure of the system) do not change. Here we see the relationship between those aspects of social phenomena that are relatively enduring (which we know as the whole or the structure) and those that are in constant flux (which we know as the actions of the parts or individuals).